X links for student teachers.
England's year 1 Phonics Screening Check (PSC) examines children's ability to accurately decode single words
using their phonics knowledge, not
their language comprehension, visual memory for high-frequency words or 'reading'.
It consists of twenty lower-frequency real words with common spellings and
twenty pseudo-words, also with common spellings. The words are
changed each year to avoid any possibility of children being taught to
memorise them solely by sight.
By the time of the check in mid-June, most year 1 children should have
received five terms of almost daily, discrete synthetic phonics teaching. Their
average age will be 6 years 4 months.
The PSC is a quick (it takes about 5 minutes for a child to complete), easy and **valid way to identify, at an essential early stage, those children who are in need of extra help with their phonics code knowledge and blending skills. Children who do not meet the expected standard in year 1 are required to retake the check in year 2.
The 'pass' mark is released after the PSC has taken place. It
has been 32 since the start of the check in 2012. This “appropriately
challenging” expected level was set by about 50 teachers whose schools were
involved in the pilot study.
''The standards on the phonics screening check were set in 2011 and were
intended to indicate the minimum acceptable standard required
to demonstrate a child is on track to become a successful reader...This will
mean a change in thinking for Y2 teachers, in that previously they may have
focused more on those children who have not met the threshold and needed
targeted intervention. However those who passed with 32 or just over, also
still have a long way to go to reach Y2 ARE in reading… probably also in
''The actual PSC takes less than five minutes. A fluent reader can
complete it in under two minutes with zero errors'' (Y1
Note that children's English language comprehension (vocabulary and
general knowledge) is assessed in the KS1
(teacher assessed) at the end of year 2 and in the KS2 Reading SAT taken in the final year of primary school.
The PSC is, in the opinion of many teachers and academics, ''valid but
unnecessary''. They assert that regular teacher assessment is the best way
to discover if a child is struggling with any aspect of reading.
However, the check quickly proved its necessity when
the 2011 pilot study (298 schools) revealed that only 32% of the children
were able to decode simple words accurately. The
following year, the 1st actual check flagged up that nearly half (42%) of year 1
children were in need of extra help with elementary phonics
decoding. Clearly, the check had uncovered major malpractice; the essential
phonics decoding component of teaching children to read had been missing or
was being very badly taught in the majority of primary schools and teacher
assessment had been ineffective.
The phonics check ''is quick, objective, and based on a model of
reading (the Simple View)
which stands up to scientific scrutiny, unlike the widely-used but slow and
subjective Running Record, which is based on a model of reading so far from
reality that nobody has ever come forward to admit they made it up'' (Alison
After the first check some teachers complained that children whom they
judged as 'good readers', including a few they had registered as gifted and
talented for reading, did badly. A year 1 teacher grumbled, "I had over 50%
of my class fail the check and, given some of the children are reading above
the level they should be in Year 2, to have to report to their parents that
they have not met the standard in decoding seems ridiculous. Many children
made mistakes trying to turn pseudo words into real words - 'strom' became
'storm'. The lack of context meant many children made mistakes they would
not have made if the word was in a sentence" (London Evening Standard 03/09/2012)
The phonics screening check 2012 technical report data provided evidence
that there was little basis for the argument that good readers (fluent
and accurate decoders) did fine on the real words but fell down on the
non-words because they are so used to reading for meaning. If children were
competent decoders they did well on both non-words and real words, and if they
were poor decoders they did badly on both types (see link below
The NFER's third independent report on the PSC confirmed the technical
report's findings above: ''Over the course of the study, a small number of respondents have expressed concerns that the check disadvantages higher achieving readers. However, as reported in Chapter 2, the analysis of the NPD data found no identifiable pattern of poorer performance on the check than expected in those children who are already fluent readers''(NFER PSC report 2015 p10)
'Do nonword reading tests for children measure what we want them to? An
analysis of Year 2 error responses'
''We conclude that nonword reading
measures are a valid index of phonics knowledge, and that these tests do not
disadvantage children who are already reading words well''
''A phonics assessment is a gift for teachers and the teaching
profession to understand the importance of effective phonics provision and
whether the teaching is effective - or not - or getting there. This is
Some teachers also complain that the ''PSC is high stakes for year 1 teachers as the
percentage of children that pass
is included in data that schools are judged by''. Perhaps they should consider
the stakes from the children's point of view? Australian Prof. Pamela
Snow had written extensively on 'Language, literacy and the school to prison
pipeline'. She comments ''(W)hen I hear and read
protests to the introduction of a Phonics Screening Check because it might
somehow be "high-stakes" for teacher / school / sector accountability,
I reflect on a different meaning of "high-stakes" and wonder how the
trajectories of some of these young people might have been altered through
early reading instruction approaches that are more faithful to the evidence
about what works. Early failure for them continues to be high-stakes into
The phonics screening check ''assesses phonics difficulties that can be masked by good sight-word reading. Unless children can be helped to ‘crack the code’ of letters and sounds, learning will progress very slowly and unreliably'' (Dr.John
Rack. Dyslexia Action)
The check is not strictly diagnostic and its main purpose is to quickly
identify children at risk of decoding difficulties. Teachers will need to
thoroughly assess the phonics code knowledge and blending skills of each child
who doesn't reach the expected level. Once assessed, a tailored synthetic
phonics intervention (not ''something different'') needs to be put into
Interpreting and responding to the results of the phonics check.
Prof. Snow responds to common arguments made by those who oppose the
introduction of a phonics check in Australia.
It's unnecessary to give children nonsense/pseudo words for homework to practise for the check. Elizabeth Nonweiler points out that there are plenty of real words even able six year olds are unlikely to have come across before.
Using low-frequency real words will provide plenty of the practice children need to read the non-words in the phonics check and increase their language comprehension.
Here are some low-frequency real word examples for practising reading the graphemes that children are expected to know (the common pronunciations) for the phonics check:
newt scribe farthing sphinx paw ploy tar ail glide joist prime glade void adorn croak gloat shoal shorn theme thorax bait twine plight mope probe hark yarn larva moat curd lurch spurn bane dale stoat hake abode
In May 2013 the government published NFER's first independent evaluation of the PSC: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/evaluation-of-the-phonics-screening-check-first-interim-report
The following is on p.23: ''A high proportion of schools are clearly teaching phonics, but not necessarily in the way a systematic synthetic approach would prescribe'' [bold in original] The report also noted that ‘The most frequently used ‘core’ phonics programme was Letters and Sounds’. In the L&S 'Notes of Guidance' booklet it states that children should not be taught to use other strategies for decoding (p.12).
The second (2014) NFER report http://goo.gl/MpNsl1 flagged up yet again that most teaching was still not consistent with a genuine ‘systematic synthetic phonics approach’- on p28: ''However, 90 per cent also ‘agreed’ or ‘agreed somewhat’ with the statement that a variety of different methods should be used to teach children to decode words. These percentages mirror almost exactly last year’s findings, and indicate that most teachers do not see a commitment to systematic synthetic phonics as incompatible with the teaching of other decoding strategies''
Despite most KS1 teachers continuing to use a mixture
of decoding methods outside the daily phonics lesson and prematurely halting discrete
phonics lessons at the end of year 1, KS2
SATs results for reading (comprehension) have slowly risen since the
push on using synthetic phonics began after the Rose report and, later, the
PSC. Of pupils who reached the phonics standard in year 1 in 2013, 88% went on
to meet the expected standard in the KS2 (year 6) reading test in 2018. (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/766017/Key_stage_2_text_v8.pdf)
Gordon Askew points out that ''(S)uccess in the Y1 PSC, whilst indubitably a vitally important indicator, does not in itself guarantee application of SSP as the
route to decoding all unknown words. Here in UK at least, we have some
schools that teach discrete phonics well enough to give children success the
the check, but still encourage the use of multi-cueing when the same
children are practising reading''
''Children hot-housed for a few months
in a desperate attempt to get them through the Screening Check never to do any
phonics again are going to fall back on whole word memorisation and guessing
to the detriment of their education and the chronic, long tail of
underachievement will go on''
That poverty is not a bar to achieving excellent results in the PSC is
exemplified by St George's Primary School, which is in one of the most
deprived areas in London. Half of its pupils have EAL & over half are eligible
for free schools meals. In 2018, for the 6th year in a row,
of St George's
children achieved the expected standard in the phonics check.
In 2018, 1,268 schools had 95%+ of their pupils achieving the
expected phonics standard in year 1.
A final important point: Though some advanced code is included, most of the words in the check use common
spellings found at the initial / simple alphabetic code stage of phonics
teaching. Debbie Hepplewhite worries that, ''(T)eachers will be overly confident
that children are 'OK' if they have reached the benchmark at the end of Y1
without being sufficiently aware that this does not mean that such children
know the alphabetic code letter/s-sound correspondences comprehensively
enough''. As Jim Curran says, ''There is presently a danger that many stop
teaching synthetic phonics once the PSC is done and over with in Y1 and the
advanced code never gets thoroughly taught – fine for the ‘boot-strapper
kids’, but many children need direct and systematic teaching of all the
Why we should be using but not teaching nonsense words
The arguments against the PSC have been discredited.
Facts about the phonics screening check
Comprehensive report: Why Australia should adopt the PSC
X What is the Phonics Screening Check for?
What people need to know about the use of pseudo, or 'nonsense' words in
''(T)he prolific production and use of
nonsense words based on illegal/inappropriate spelling patterns lays bare
the lack of professional knowledge and understanding of
phonics teaching and practice''
X Year 1 Phonics screening check
X 2. Phonics screening -why read nonsense?
X 3. Phonics screening -what next?
Free downloads of the DfE's past phonics screening check materials.
DfE: Scoring the check: ''For real words, inappropriate grapheme-phoneme
correspondences must be marked as incorrect (for example, reading ‘blow’ to
rhyme with ‘cow’ would be incorrect). However, alternative pronunciations of
graphemes will be allowed in pseudo-words''
Prof. Maggie Snowling et al's independent study focused on the reliability and validity of the year one phonics screening check.
''We have shown that the new phonics screening check is a **valid measure of phonic skills and is sensitive to identifying children at risk of reading difficulties. Its slight tendency to overestimate the prevalence of at-risk readers (as compared with standardised tests of reading accuracy and fluency) is arguably a favourable property for a screening instrument. We agree that early rigorous assessment of phonic skills is important for the timely identification of word reading difficulties''
John Walker comments on the Journal of Research in Reading report on the phonics screening check:
Authors Roald Dahl and Lewis Carroll were keen users of nonsense
The phonics check, nonsense words
and the Jabberwocky
N.B. In his 2018 book 'Blueprint', Prof. Plomin misrepresented the
phonics check, equating it with the TOWRE. The PSC's 20 real words are specifically chosen to be *unfamiliar*
to 6yr.olds and pupils are simply asked to read (decode) all 40 words in their
own time. Reading speed is not a factor. The TOWRE test Plomin used with
7yr.olds in his TEDS twin studies was of speed reading familiar words.