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Phonically Decodable Books
 

England's National Curriculum states that pupils in year 1 should, ''read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words''.

The new 'Ofsted School Inspection Handbook' says that inspectors will look to see that, ''the sequence of reading books shows a cumulative progression in phonics knowledge that is matched closely to the school’s phonics programme. Teachers give pupils sufficient practice in reading and re-reading books that match the grapheme-phoneme correspondences they know, both at school and at home''

Please note, it's a myth that classrooms that teach using high quality phonics exclude so-called real books; phonics for decoding is taught discretely as part of a broad and balanced, language-rich curriculum. Beginning readers, in classrooms where high quality phonics is taught, will have plenty of access to real books (fiction and non-fiction). When doing shared reading of a 'real' book, the teacher (or parent if it is a home book) takes responsibility for reading any as yet untaught GPCs or words with tricky spellings so no multi-cueing (guessing) or whole word memorisation is necessary.

''Send home four books a week, 2 decodables (one on current unit and one for revision) and 2 books for parents to read to them. Therefore home practise is supporting both strands of the reading rope (decoding + comprehension)''  (James Lyra. DSF conference 2019)

ALL books become 'decodable' once you've learnt the Alphabet Code!
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For guidance only: catch-up KS2-3 X KS3 ->adults X

N.B. this is not a definitive list of phonically decodable book schemes.

www.phonicbooks.co.uk/

Written to support Sounds~Write or any other linguistic phonics programme.
Can also be used with Letters&Sounds -see the phonics progression chart available on the website.
- 'Launchers' first texts for beginners at Foundation stage -start at cvc level.
Launchers Units 1-7 are now available as interactive e-Books that can be downloaded onto the iPad or iPhone. Unit 1 is free to download.
- Dandelion readers:
Review of Dandelion Readers, Level 2, that introduces alternative vowel spellings.
http://www.teachprimary.com/tried_and_tested/view/dandelion-readers
Decodable book series for intervention KS2/3:
- X Alba series.12 books specifically written to appeal to girls in KS2/3. Reading Age KS1 -start at cvc level
- X Magic Belt. 12 books, a prequel to the Totem quest series -start at cvc level.
Review of Magic Belt https://theliteracyblog.com/2013/01/21/the-magic-belt-series-from-phonicbooks/
- X Totem series. 12 books specifically designed for older struggling readers age 8-14 / Reading Age KS1 -start at cvc level.
- X Talisman series. 20 books specifically designed for older struggling readers age 8-14 / Reading Age KS1.
- Amber Guardians. This series is designed to bridge the gap between decodables and mainstream reading, with a high ratio of text to illustration.
Check out the website for several new series...
FREE (for duration of COVID19 emergency) 10 storybooks: 'Moon Dogs at Home' series + linked activity worksheets to print out.
https://www.phonicbooks.co.uk/advice-and-resources/free-teaching-resources/free-mini-books-for-home-school-use/

http://www.sounds-write.co.uk/
Sounds~Write readers - written to support Sounds~Write or any other linguistic phonics programme.
Initial/basic code books following the S~W GPC introduction order -start at CVC level.
Extended/advanced code books: ''These titles focus on particular sounds to give children plenty of practice of the most common spelling alternatives presented in each of the Extended Code Units''
NEW. set of 10 non-fiction decodable books 'Animal Series' ''suitable for Y1 onwards as well as for intervention''
https://www.sounds-write.co.uk/catSound-2373-informational-texts.aspx?
X Jera Books. http://www.sounds-write.co.uk/page-79-books-for-young-adults.aspx 'Battle Cries', a comic book series specifically designed for older, struggling readers age 11+. ''Each book focuses on a particular sound and is deliberately contrived to contain multiple spellings of the sound''. Important -read the online Teachers' Guide before using these books.

Forward with Phonics. http://www.forwardwithphonics.com/index.html
X The Drop-In series: phonics decodable books (start at cvc level) to use with older teens and adults. E-Book versions now available
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Phonics Stories for Older Learners: photocopiable decodable stories and worksheets.
Both publications follow the Sounds-Write phonics code progression.

No Nonsense Phonics: Non-Fiction books. https://www.raintree.co.uk/
These non-fiction books are ideal for practising decoding skills using unfamiliar real words. All words are fully decodable using the GPCs covered in the Phonics Screening Check. The books are meant for consolidation after all the correspondences in them have been taught and are not meant to follow the progression of any one programme. They are divided into two levels. Level 1 correspondences nearly match the correspondences in Section 1 of the Phonics Check and Level 2 correspondences nearly match those in Section 2. Interesting facts are included at the back of each book to to encourage discussion and extend knowledge.

Read Write Inc. OUP. Ruth Miskin's story books and non-fiction books
http://www.oup.com/oxed/primary/rwi/transformingprogrammes

Caution: The 'Red Words' in the RWI books are not 'non-decodable'.
- Ditty Books. first texts for absolute beginners.

OUP's Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) Floppy's Phonics fiction & non-fiction.
https://global.oup.com/education/content/primary/series/oxford-reading-tree/floppys-phonics/?region=international
Matched to the DfE programme Letters and Sounds.
Caution
: Do NOT confuse these phonically decodable books with ORT's 'Classic' Biff, Chip and Kipper predictable-text books.

Rising Stars. Rocket Phonics.
Fully decodable readers. Matched to the DfE programme Letters and Sounds. Written by synthetic phonics experts Abi Steel and Anne Glennie.
https://www.risingstars-uk.com/Subjects/Reading-and-Ebooks/Rising-Stars-Reading-Planet/Rocket-Phonics

Sound Discovery: www.syntheticphonics.net
X King Wizzit stories. 12 decodable books specifically written to support the Sound Discovery literacy programme at digraph level. Funny stories about kings, islands and dragons, best for 7 to 11 year olds who are poor readers.
- Phoneme Spotter Story Books: each story features the alternative spellings for a single vowel sound. Corresponding comprehension and writing activities are included for a complete lesson.
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10 reasons why beginning readers should only be given phonically decodable books for independent practice:

1. Phonically decodable book schemes are consistent with synthetic phonics instruction; they go from simple to complex, use only directly taught code (phoneme-grapheme correspondences, not rimes) and illustrations are not deliberately designed to provide overt clues to text content.

2. Patterned / predictable text (leveled / banded) scheme books and so-called real (non-scheme) books give beginning readers a mistaken idea of what reading entails if they are expected to read them independently. Many will come to believe that it is a memorising and (psycholinguistic) guessing game.

3. Phonically decodable books allow beginning readers to put their newly learnt alphabet code knowledge, blending and segmenting skills into immediate practice. This is essential to develop their reading stamina, fluency and confidence.

4. There is no way of knowing which particular children entering a reception class have poor visual / auditory memories, intermittent hearing difficulties or are on the lower end of the normal distribution curve of PA acquisition ability. These children are more likely to become struggling 'dyslexic' readers if a patterned text (Book Bands) scheme or 'real' books are used at first. Children with good visual memories and wide vocabularies may appear to do well initially with patterned text schemes and real books BUT see 5.

5. Phonically decodable books prevent the development of the word guessing habit. This harmful habit can be very difficult to change when children get older. Those with good visual memories and richer vocabularies are likely to quickly develop this habit when they practise reading independently, using patterned text or real books. Eventually, their memory for whole words will reach its limit and, if they haven't, in the meantime, taught themselves the alphabet code, segmenting and blending skills, they will struggle to read advanced texts with many novel, multisyllable words and no illustrations.

6. Many beginning readers struggle to decode words in the early levels (pink, red, yellow, blue...) of Book Banded patterned texts or real books, losing comprehension and confidence in the process. High quality phonics instruction, along with phonically decodable books for independent practice, gives children quick success, ensuring long term enthusiasm for reading. The increased focus on phonics teaching has been accompanied by an increase in reading enjoyment among children. ''In 2016 we recorded the highest levels of reading enjoyment to date, with nearly 6 in 10 saying that they enjoy reading either very much or quite a lot'' (NationalLiteracy Trust)

7. The use of phonically decodable books for independent reading practice is usually only necessary for a short period in the early years. When taught well with high quality phonics, most children learn the common code quickly, begin to self-teach the less-common code, and can move to independently reading real (non-scheme) books, rather than being stuck for several years on a leveled scheme with the restricted word count necessary to ensure adequate memorisation of the high frequency words.

8. Good spelling is aided by the use of phonically decodable books -see Spelling

9. Empirical research supports the use of phonically decodable books for early, independent reading practice -see below.

10. Parents easily understand the logic of phonically decodable books and are more able and willing to help their children practise reading at home.

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''Fuency, Meyer et al (1999), is the ability to read connected text 'rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automaticially with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading, such as decoding''. You can't get to that without being able to decode and decodables assist that process'' (Quoted by John Walker)

What is a decodable book?
https://www.spelfabet.com.au/2018/05/what-is-a-decodable-book/
"Decodability thus describes how well a book/text matches its reader’s decoding skills. It gives us a proper, objective way of identifying a just-right book, by ensuring lesson-to-text match."

https://theliteracyblog.com/2018/03/25/decodable-readers-systematicity-and-practice/
''The Key Takeaway: If using ‘phonic controlled’ books/texts/readers, it is important that the child taught in a systematic manner the code sequence to match the books. Otherwise, the child’s reading accuracy may be reduced which could lead to frustration and other issues''

https://achievethecore.org/aligned/supporting-youngest-readers-teaching-skills-reading/
Why are decodable books essential?
''It is true that “Pam had a tan cat” is not the start of a riveting story. But then again, adult readers, that story wasn’t meant for you. It wasn’t meant for you to read aloud to captivate children either, or to build vocabulary and knowledge of the world, which is also critical in a strong K-2 literacy program. It was meant to do a different job, important for a different reason: to help emergent readers...If students only focus on phonics as a set of discrete skills through lessons and games and don’t connect these skills to the reading of text, they will not develop this habit and use it to read. This, in a nutshell, is why decodables are so essential''

''When teachers poo poo decodable readers I remind them that they are not for them, they can read. Rather, they are for their students who are learning to read and they serve an important purpose: to enable students to practice decoding and reach early automaticity with the code'' (Dr.Lorraine Hammond)

https://johnkennyweb.wordpress.com/2018/02/08/what-are-decodable-texts-and-why-are-they-important/
What are decodable texts and why are they important?
"Decodable texts are a crucial resource for a phonics-based approach. They incorporate words that are consistent with the letters and corresponding phonemes that have been taught. The books are intended to allow students to use their phonic knowledge to decode new words."

''Spelling alternatives for each phoneme can be mastered through controlled exposure and repetition, via...specially designed stories...'' (Prof. McGuinness ERI p59)

http://www.dyslexiasa.org.au/current-issues/why-sa-schools-must-invest-in-decodable-readers-in-2018
Why ALL Primary Schools Must Invest in Decodable Readers

Video-clip: How to help your child read a decodable story book
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXoNZoKWQu4

Parents: Top Tips for Reading with Beginners
https://www.phonicbooks.co.uk/advice-and-resources/advice-and-resources-for-parents/top-tips-for-reading-with-beginners/

Hi-Lo books are suitable for developing newly independent readers' fluency and confidence, but use late into or on completion of a synthetic phonics (intervention) programme. Barrington Stoke https://www.barringtonstoke.co.uk/ Caution -do not use solely for 'silent reading'. It is essential that students are regularly heard reading text aloud to ensure that they are still decoding accurately and not skipping or substituting words.

https://theliteracyblog.com/2017/03/21/reading-in-text/
Moving from decodable books into leveled or 'real' books.

''Free-choice [silent] reading time — SSR, DEAR, SQUIRT — ranges from having no affect on learning to having very tiny effects'' (Prof. Timothy Shanahan)

''Where she is more wary is about classroom initiatives such as Everybody Reading in Class (ERIC) and DEAR. McGeown would like to see a stronger evidence base to support such activities''
https://www.tes.com/magazine/article/tes-focus-reading-motivation

David Didau suggests switching DEAR to DEAL (From Drop Everything and Read to Drop Everything and Listen)

''Children who struggle when reading texts aloud do not become good readers if left to read silently; their dysfluency merely becomes inaudible'' (Prof.Seidenberg's Language at the Speed of Sight p130) 

Book Bands and other book leveling schemes:

Book Bands and Leveled Readers Should be Abandoned

Is there a role for predictable texts in beginning reading instruction?
http://www.iferi.org/iferi_forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=469

Reading Recovery's Book Bands, Pearson's Rigby Star Independent & Guided readers, Scholastic's PM readers, Cliff Moon's Individualised Reading, Hatcher's Graded booklist and the Catch Up Literacy booklist are all commercial book leveling schemes based on the whole language notion of early reading - that is, beginners, or those requiring intervention, use globally memorised sight words, initial letter/s, picture and context clues to 'read'. In these schemes, books are leveled according to the number of words on a line, number of lines on a page or the number of high frequency words used and the degree of repetition, NOT on the phonic decodability of the text. For example, books in Pink Bookband (recommended for children aged 4-5), 'usually have no more than 10 pages with up to 5 words on a page' (ReadingChest/bookbands). Typically, these books will be described as containing ''predictable text, utilising rhyme, repetition, and supportive illustrations''.

Daniel Willingham discusses readabilty formulas for leveling books.
http://www.danielwillingham.com/daniel-willingham-science-and-education-blog/evaluating-readability-measures

http://www.spelfabet.com.au/2016/02/levelled-books-for-guided-reading/
Leveled books for guided reading - uses PM readers as an example.

Too bound by Book Bands
http://ssphonix.blogspot.co.uk/2016/11/too-bound-by-book-bands.html

Why Book Bands block children's reading progress
https://www.ruthmiskin.com/en/about-us/blog-news/article/ruths-blog-why-book-bands-block-childrens-reading-progress/

The 4th edition of Reading Recovery's 'Book Bands for Guided Reading' (2007) states in the introduction that, ''We have banded only those series produced by publishers specifically for Guided Reading. This excludes books intended for shared or independent use, and also series designed to provide practice with the decoding of certain phoneme-grapheme correspondences, and therefore more suited to a daily, discrete programme of phonic work''. Despite this, the big publishers (OUP, Pearsons...) have chosen to place their phonically decodable books for beginning readers in Book Band colour groups.

http://ssphonix.blogspot.co.uk/2014/11/throw-out-throwbacks-please_7.html
Throw out the throwbacks: guided reading using leveled books and multi-cueing.

''(A)s they learn to master the alphabetic code, children should be given reading material that is well within their reach in the form of 'decodable books'... Using such books as part of the phonic programme does not preclude other reading. Indeed it can be shown that such books help children develop confidence and an appetite for reading more widely.'' (Rose Report 2006. para 82)

Research:

https://bit.ly/2VUhEGZ
The influence of decodability in early reading text on reading achievement: A review of the evidence
''Collectively the results indicate that decodability is a critical characteristic of early reading text as it increases the likelihood that students will use a decoding strategy & results in immediate benefits, particularly with regard to accuracy''

''Both Foorman et al (1998) & Juel & Minden-Cupp (2000) found that explicit instruction and opportunities for extended practice with phonemically decodable texts were particularly beneficial for children at risk for reading failure'' (Prof Torgesen)

‘'The selection of text used very early in first grade may, at least in part, determine the strategies and cues children learn to use, and persist in using, in subsequent word identification.... In particular, emphasis on a phonics method seems to make little sense if children are given initial texts to read where the words do not follow regular letter-sound correspondence generalizations. Results of the current study suggest that the types of words which appear in beginning reading texts may well exert a more powerful influence in shaping children’s word identification strategies than the method of reading instruction'' (Juel and Roper/Schneider. Reading Research Quarterly 18)

''Treatment participants reading highly decodable text were found to apply letter-sound knowledge to a greater extent than control participants. They also were more accurate and relied on examiners less for assistance''
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.525.9315&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Books for beginning readers should use short words so children can register all the letters in a single fixation. p58.
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Lyxgk3cF6B4C&pg=PA52&lpg=PA52&dq=&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acp.1577/abstract
Experiments on the effects of including illustrations in beginning reading materials: to improve reading proficiency use plain text or only use illustrations that provide no direct clues to the words in the text.