Should I have my child assessed for dyslexia? or Why isn't my child learning to read?
| link to : The Options / Choosing a tutor |

Recommended links for student teachers and NQTs X

Scroll to base for (mostly free) Assessments to use and An assessment to avoid

If your child is struggling to read and spell simple words accurately, it is important to act fast. There is no biologically critical period for learning to decode and spell as writing systems are recent human inventions. Nevertheless, there is a window of time between the ages of about 4 to 7 when children can be taught the alphabet code, decoding and spelling skills most quickly and easily. The window never closes but the older the child the more difficult it can be to provide the missing knowledge and skills, eliminate the acquired guessing habit and prevent ''disaffection and disengagement from education'' (Rose 2009. p38).

Most children start school enthusiastically, keen and eager to learn but, typically, those who are failing to learn to read will become deeply unhappy after only a term or so and may suffer from frequent 'tummy aches' or other stress symptoms. Some children become rebellious and disruptive as an outward show of distress, maybe even receiving the 'ADHD' label, whilst others become unnaturally quiet and subdued and do their best to avoid all attention, the dreamers at the back of the class.

''The signs are there for mums and dads who care to look out for them. If you have a child who brings books home but doesn’t want to read them; a child who is suddenly either too quiet or too aggressive at school; a child who has clearly memorised her early books or who is being described as “possibly dyslexic” or “plateauing” by her teachers — be alert to the possibility that, no matter how old, she may never have learnt to read properly.'' (Ruth Miskin.Sunday Times 26/03/06)

Do NOT accept any of the following excuses for a child's decoding and spelling difficulties:

N.B he/she, his/her are mostly interchangeable in the following excuses.

- Your child is lazy / isn't trying / doesn't pay attention / needs to concentrate / lacks motivation
- Your child has emotional barriers to reading created as a result of your anxieties (Rose 2009 p21)
- He hasn't memorised the list of essential sight words yet
- She'll never learn to read if she doesn't love reading.
- She just hasn't found the right book/author yet that motivates her to keep reading.
- ''Your child has developed learned helplessness. He needs to learn to work more independently and be a risk taker''
- Boys are often slow 'catching on' to reading. He'll read when he's ready.
- It's part of her whole personality; you can't cure it (FE College staff 'dyslexia' support leaflet)
- His brain is wired differently from other children
- She has 'a different brain organisation' from other children
- Your child has a neurodevelopmental disability
- He's got a phonological / auditory processing defect
- Her brain and speech lacks 'rhythm'.
- His particular learning style / 'preferred way of learning' doesn't suit phonics teaching.
- She's a visual / kinesthetic learner so phonics doesn't work for her.
- His ''brain isn't well matched to a literacy-based society'' (BDA. Pollak p131)
- You have unrealistic expectations; he's just not academic.
- It's because of the family's low socio-economic status.
- It's because the family lacks cultural capital. 
- It's because she's in a one-parent family
- It's because the family is white, working-class
- It's because the family is black, Caribbean
- It's because she has too many siblings at home
- It's because he's left handed / 'right-brained'
- It's due to 'visual stress'; she needs tinted lenses/overlays.
- It's because his diet is/was deficient in essential fatty acids
- It's because her second teeth haven't appeared yet
- He's not developmentally ready to hear phonemes yet; we'll use a rhyming analogy approach for now.
- It's because she skipped the crawling stage and went straight to walking.
- You haven't /don't read to him enough at home
- It's because the family home has very few or no books.
- You failed to ''treat your baby as a meaning maker from birth and share stories of joy" (Prof.Robyn Ewing)
- He's inherited your family's dyslexia genes
- It's because English is her second/additional language...
- It's because of his ''medical difficulties - constipation, anaemia, poor diet etc'' (UK Gov.LI16.Hewes) 

Note that all these excuses place the source of the problem with the child or their parent/s, never with the teaching or the teaching materials.

''We need to be outraged at this failure to teach and insouciant parent blame. It’s not your fault. It’s not within him. It’s inadequate teaching.'' (Lisa Jeffery. Twitter. )

Galen Alessi, a Professor of Psychology, conducted a fascinating study on school psychologists. He asked 50 school psychologists to list the causes of the learning difficulties of about 5,000 students. ''Based on the results of these 5,000 reports prepared by school psychologists, "the results indicate clearly no need to improve curricula, teaching practices, nor school administrative practices and management. The only needs somehow involve improving the stock of children enrolled in the system, and some of their parents."...''After examining several "mainstream" school psychology texts, Alessi found that when assessing children’s reading problems, school factors were mentioned as a factor between 7% and 0% (zero) of the time. "Child factors" were held responsible for reading problems between 90% to 100% of the time'' (Wrightslaw.The Blame Game)

''Wade and Moore (1993) asked teachers the question, “Who is to blame for students’ failure to learn?” That 65% of teachers blamed child characteristics, and 32% of teachers blamed the home situation would probably be a surprise to those parents who view schools as the major influence on learning. Only 3% of teachers blamed teachers or the school system for learning problems'' (Hempenstall. Failure to learn: causes and consequences)

''If it’s right that reading difficulties are, in the main, caused by teaching deficits not by intelligence deficits then it also makes sense to say that if a child leaves school unable to decode fluently it is the school’s fault.'' (David Didau)

How inadequate teaching morphs into other problems over time. ''It’s easy to mistake symptoms for causes''

You are your child's best, sometimes only advocate. If your child is still at the primary stage, approach your child's school and find out what they are using/used to teach your child to read. According to the NFER, 80% of state primary schools in England currently use 'Letters & Sounds' (L&S). L&S is a very basic synthetic phonics programme, hastily produced by the government in 2007 as a free, non-compulsory, stop-gap/fall-back programme for schools. Unfortunately, even if your child's school is using L&S or another DfE recognised synthetic phonics programme, there is no guarantee that their teachers know how to teach it properly.

Dear Parents. Welcome to the confusing world of reading instruction.
''As parents, you buy a lottery ticket when your child starts school''

The **majority of primary teachers are still using the old (1998) NLS Searchlight decoding strategies: although nearly all KS1 teachers do teach phonics decoding in a daily, discrete phonics lesson, most also ask children to memorise lists of 'sight words' and guess their way through leveled / banded books (for example: Oxford Reading Tree's Biff, Chip and Kipper books or Scholastic's PM readers) when literacy activities take place at other times during the day. For a significant minority of children, this is a recipe for confusion and failure.

**Only 27% of the schools which took part in the phonics check pilot in 2011 said that they taught phonics systematically, as opposed to teaching children mixed reading methods such as picture clues and sight memory to read words (DfE. Dec 2011) That the majority of teachers (90%) continue to teach children to use multiple decoding strategies, rather than synthetic phonics, was confirmed in independent reports produced by the NFER in 2013 and 2014.

''Phonics has been shown to be a very effective approach for young readers (4-7 year olds), though it is usually embedded as part of a balanced approach'' (italics added. DfE 2018)

Some phonics programmes teach a limited number of the approximately 175 common GPCs directly (for example: the Optima Reading programme teaches just 64 GPCs). Children must then discover (acquire through implicit learning) the rest of the code for themselves. Many children can do this, but a significant number need to be explicitly taught all of the code's common letter-sound mappings to ensure long-term reading and spelling success.

''Too often, there's an assumption that with normal schooling a student has experienced adequate instruction" (Sara Peden. Twitter)

''Why is it, when you have an obvious support for the development of the alphabetic principle, that “decoding” and “reading comprehension” gets Balkanised like this?''

According to Caroline Cox, there are four principal grounds on which teachers justify their practices. They are: 'tradition (how it has always been done); prejudice (how I like it done); dogma (this is the 'right' way to do it) and ideology (as required by the current orthodoxy) (Hargreaves 1996 TTA lecture p7)

X Simple View of England's Schools: Which quadrant does your school's phonics provision fall into?

X http://pamelasnow.blogspot.co.uk/2017/07/a-phonics-check-of-another-kind.html
This is a 'phonics check' for teachers and schools ''to self-assess the extent to which they are “already doing phonics” Parents will find it useful too.

Teachers continue to use guided reading with multi-cueing, Book Bands and sight word labels.

Most schools rely on parents to teach children to read.

Parents: Teachers’ feelings are not more important than children’s rights.

If your child is just a beginning reader yet brings home the early levels of colour-banded books (pink, red, yellow, blue..) with predictable/repetitive text to practise reading, plus lists of common words to memorise by sight alone, then s/he is still being taught with a 'mixture of decoding methods'. Beginning readers have little choice but to use whole word memorising along with multi-clue (guessing) strategies for decoding in order to read this type of book with any independence.

X Alison Clarke illustrates why predictable or repetitive texts are harmful for beginning readers

In Oct 2010 the DfE issued a revised set of criteria for synthetic phonics programmes. It included guidance on early texts to practise reading:
''(E)nsure that as pupils move through the early stages of acquiring phonics, they are invited to practise by reading texts which are entirely decodable for them, so that they experience success and learn to rely on phonemic strategies. It is important that texts are of the appropriate level for children to apply and practise the phonic knowledge and skills that they have learnt. Children should not be expected to use strategies such as whole-word recognition and/or cues from context, grammar, or pictures.''

The DfE 2010 guidance on decodable book use was reinforced in the 2014 National Curriculum (NC). The NC states that pupils should, ''...read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words''. The NC is only statutory from year 1 but, in Ofsted's new (2019), mandatory early reading 'deep dive', inspectors will be looking at how well the school teaches children to read from the beginning of Reception. This will include inspectors checking that, ''children read from books with the sounds they know, while they are learning to read'' (Gill Jones. Ofsted Deputy Director for Early Education. Nov. 2019)

For a multitude of reasons a child can have difficulties learning to read even though the school is using a high quality synthetic programme taught expertly. It is absolutely essential that the school implements some one-to-one tutoring immediately it is noticed that the child is failing to keep up with his/her classroom companions, and that the school's tutor uses more of the same synthetic phonics programme or an intervention programme based on synthetic phonics principles, not something different.

Prevention rather than intervention, keep-up rather than catch-up.

Ruth Miskin, an early reading expert, explains, ''I think there will always be a small group of children who will need one-to-one tutoring - even with the best synthetic programmes, best training and best implementation; there are some children who have particular needs that cannot be met in a group - and not just SEN children. We tutored some children with SEN at my old school forever until they could read well. We also tutored children with behaviour problems, long term absentees, new arrivals just to mention a few. These children were always given more of the same and not something different. No amount of group teaching helps a child once they fall behind their peers - though you can sometimes teach in pairs if they are at the same level. If we want to be truly inclusive schools must plan for these children as a matter of course and not just hope for the best. Synthetic phonics is not a simple panacea - it takes determination to get every child reading. As soon as a child fails to learn the first letter on the first day - quick tutoring should take place''. Ruth Miskin recommends that those children who need quick tutoring, ''receive ten minutes of one-to-one practice before the lesson so they are confident from the start'' (Miskin.SEN magazine 47)

''Be relentless – never give up until every child can read'' (Ruth Miskin's advice to head teachers)

If your child has difficulties with blending then follow John Walker's practical advice:

''It is important that pressure is not put on children too early to stop sounding and blending. Many Y1 pupils who sound and blend words still need to do this in order to read accurately. If they are encouraged to say words quickly, they may resort to guessing from pictures and context'', warns Elizabeth Nonweiler.

Reading Fluently Does Not Mean Reading Fast

At a late stage, often only as a result of parental pressure, when the school's remedial provision is proving ineffective and the child is continuing to have serious difficulties learning to read, a school may bring in an LEA educational psychologist (EP) to assess the child. Note that LEA psychologists, ''...work within a public service ethos in which fairness to all potential clients is actively pursued, but in which it is widely believed that it is also unethical to publicly ''raise expectations'' above what the LA or school can deliver'' (Bunn.SEN magazine.54 p69) To avoid delay, parents can arrange for their child to see an independent EP. They will charge a hefty (£300+) professional fee for their services. Education consultant John Bald warns that educational psychologists are able to, ''...charge large fees for reports based on simplistic tests that are kept secret in order to protect them from legitimate public and academic scrutiny'' (John Bald.blog 06/06/10)

The problem with assessment for dyslexia is that research has cast serious doubt on the validity of all the past and present diagnostic procedures. For a start, a professional assessment will usually include an intelligence test despite the fact that using IQ tests as an integral part of diagnosing dyslexia is known to be scientifically flawed. Presently, the British Psychological Society (BPS) advise that, ''Assessments referring to cognitive test scores within batteries of tests, such as the BAS and WISC, can be informative when pointing to strengths and weaknesses in the individual case. No particular pattern of sub-test scores, however, can be regarded as necessary or sufficient in deciding whether and to what extent learning difficulties can be described as dyslexic'' (BPS 2005 p68) Furthermore, the BPS' definition of dyslexia, which it simplifies to, ''...marked and persistent problems at the word level of the NLS curricular framework'' (BPS 2005 p20), is, it acknowledges, only a 'working' definition, not an operational one, meaning it cannot be used to make a scientifically valid diagnosis.

“If you’re testing for dyslexia, small numbers of kids get identified and prioritised but massive numbers with similar sorts of problems do not get helped'' (Prof. Elliott)

The irrelevance of intelligence testing for reading disability/dyslexia issues

Reading difficulty is a teaching problem not an intelligence problem

Prof. Julian Elliott: Dyslexia: diagnoses, debates & diatribes

Nowadays, most educational psychologists and researchers get around the irksome diagnosis problem by saying that dyslexia is not a discrete, "all or nothing" phenomenon, something one either has or doesn't have; diagnosis, they will tell you, is based on the level of decoding difficulty a person has, measured along a continuum from mild through to severe (Rose 2009 p34) “People used to think dyslexia was a clear-cut syndrome with signs and syndromes like a medical disease, but it is actually much more like blood pressure – it can range from very low to very high'' (Prof. Snowling. TES podcast).This is the 'Bell Curve' diagnosis, where struggling readers found at some arbitrary point, (let's say in the lowest 10%) on the normal distribution curve for decoding ability may, if the professional doing the assessing deems it to be useful, be given the dyslexia label: ''Literacy difficulties exist on a continuum. There is no clear or absolute cut off point where a child can be said to have dyslexia...(W)hether or not to describe a child’s literacy difficulties as dyslexia will be a matter for professional judgement'' (Devon LEA Dyslexia Guidance) or ''an intuitive clinical impression'' (Prof. Frith quoted in Miles. p171)

Kerr rightly describes this as ''throwing in the sponge'' (Kerr p98) and goes on to say, ''(I)t is not legitimate to claim that simply because they all find themselves in this bottom 10% they must all share any particular characteristic, let alone all suffer from the same syndrome, without further evidence that this is so. We have no evidence as to why these poor readers are in this group...All we can properly say from contemplation of the bell curve is that they all seem to be poor readers. It is improper to claim more than this on this evidence – especially to claim that membership of the poor readers group per se indicates possession of a neurological deficit – indicates that all these people suffer from dyslexia'' (Kerr p99)

The second method used by 'educated professionals' to identify dyslexia (used alongside, or as an alternative to the Bell Curve diagnosis) is based on whether the student's decoding problem has proved ''resistant to a prolonged and systematic reading intervention'' (Elliott/Gibbs p483)  This is the Response to Intervention (RTI) diagnosis. What precisely constitutes a ''well founded intervention'' (Rose 2009 p10) or ''adequate opportunity and effort'' (Kilpatrick) will not be stated and parents, yet again, will find themselves having to rely on the judgement (opinion or guesswork) of the professional involved.

Professor Dick Schutz renames RTI as 'Really Terrible Instruction' and points out that, ''The Response to Intervention framework was devised as an alternative to the discredited IQ /Achievement Discrepancy “Model” for the designation of “Learning Disability.” Schools and teachers find the newer “Model” attractive because it takes the “problem kids” out of mainstream instruction while sustaining present instructional practices and maintaining the turf of psychologists and “Special Education” specialists. Parents find it attractive because the children involved are receiving increased personal and specialized instructional attention. By the time a child has gone through Tier 3 [UK.Wave 3], the child, parents, and school personnel are thoroughly convinced that the child has a “disability.” The tragedy/travesty is that the “problem” the child had when first identified as “at risk” has morphed into a “really big problem” for which the child bears the full responsibility''

Note that specialist dyslexia teaching as described in Sir Jim Rose's Dyslexia Report 2009 cannot, at present, be considered to provide a ''well founded intervention'' as, ''(M)any of the things that specialist dyslexia teachers do have not been the subject of much published research'' (Singleton p21) and those few ''results reported from studies in UK specialist [dyslexia] schools and teaching centres would be regarded as disappointing (or even disregarded altogether)'' (Singleton p74).

Because of their inability to give a legitimate diagnosis (there is no legal definition of dyslexia in the UK (Singleton p16) or an internationally accepted scientific one), a specialist dyslexia teacher or educational psychologist's written report is highly unlikely to include the concrete label of 'dyslexia'. Instead it will substitute words such as, 'has a specific weakness in phonological development', 'has deficits in phonological awareness', or it will be hedged about with words that avoid commitment to a definitive diagnosis; 'literacy difficulties follow the pattern of a SpLD known as dyslexia', 'has dyslexic traits' or, 'is at risk for Dyslexia-SpLD', with the clear cut dyslexia label only given to parents verbally.

Dyslexia: Still Not a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.
"We recently pointed out that there is no evidence to support the commonly held view that there is something wrong with the brains of children who have great difficulty learning to read ..."

''Getting the right help to all children who need it – rather than spending time and money separating off "dyslexic" children and giving them expensive but often dubious assistance – should now be a national priority. But it is not'' (David Mills. Telegraph. 2007. Dyslexia: a big, expensive myth )

After criticism of her comments on the TV documentary, 'The Dyslexia Myth', where she seemed to suggest otherwise, Professor Snowling declared that ''(D)yslexia can be readily identified by educated professionals''. Presumably, being aware that there is no way this can be done legitimately when there is no operational definition, she added, ''It is no longer relevant to ask ‘who is dyslexic and who is not'' (www.myomancy.com/2005/09) Professors Stanovich and Elliott were more straightforward: ''The underlying difficulty appears to be the same, the way these children respond to treatment appears to be the same, there appears to be no justification whatsoever for going in and trying to carve out a special group of poor readers. This is what 15 years of research, all over the world has shown can’t be justified on a scientific or empirical basis'' (Stanovich in Mills. The Dyslexia Myth) ''After three decades as an educationalist, first as a teacher of children with learning difficulties, then as an educational psychologist and, latterly, as an academic who has reviewed the educational literature, I have little confidence in myself (or others') ability to offer a diagnosis of dyslexia.'' (Prof.Elliott. TES)

Prof. Julian Elliott: By Focusing On Dyslexia, We Ignore Other Struggling Readers

''Dyslexia is the excuse that absolves educators of responsibility – in fact, I believe it to be the opium of education'' (Anne Glennie).

''The power of the label is rooted in:
a) our natural desire to have a diagnostic term for our difficulties
b) its ability to foster a more positive conception of self
c) its leverage with teachers and the gatekeepers to resources''(Prof. Elliott ppt)

An LEA educational psychologist comments: ''Unfortunately people want a label as they think it offers an explanation and often the label is useful as it releases extra funding and special arrangements for exams. I avoid the term, referring instead to the specific gaps in code knowledge and the need for extra teaching to learn the basic or advanced code, practice with blending, segmenting, the need for modelled writing where children compose sentences orally first, the need to develop accurate letter formation through handwriting teaching and practice. Now we have identified these gaps and weak areas, I say to schools and parents, we can focus extra teaching on them. Schools and parents would be much happier, I suspect, if I just were to say with a long face, "It's dyslexia!!!". It's not an easy position to defend - there is an LEA specialist advisory teacher for dyslexia and dyslexia friendly courses all about overlays, coloured paper, and special arrangements for accessing the curriculum, using scribes and readers and dictaphones and ICT''.

''In Scotland they have stopped 'teaching' children with dyslexia how to read. They switched to the social model of disability and now 'support' pupils in the class, giving them overlays, speech to text etc. Children leaving primary school functionally illiterate and suicidal.'' ('DyslexiaEdu' on Twitter)

Parents need to ask themselves if it really is a good idea to spend a great deal of time, effort and usually money, to get their child professionally labeled as 'dyslexic', when there is no genuine science behind its identification. More importantly, obtaining the label certainly does not guarantee that your child will, as a consequence, receive expert in-school tuition with a high quality synthetic phonics intervention programme to remediate his/her decoding and spelling difficulties.

Another negative result of obtaining the 'dyslexia' label for a child is that many classroom teachers find the label intimidating. They believe that those with the label have biologically determined and incurable reading difficulties.  After receiving the diagnosis of dyslexia from an 'educated professional' (Prof Snowling), the child is likely to be assigned by their teacher to the 'can't be taught to read or spell' category, with any help being limited to various accommodations and modifications.

''Diagnosis for us was waste of time and money. School continued on exactly the same path - unable/unwilling to help beyond tokenism in the classroom - diagnosis gave them excuse they were looking for to give up as dyslexics ‘cannot be taught to read.’' (Amanda, a parent on Twitter)

Possession of the dyslexia label can make parents more vulnerable to the purveyors of snake oil cures: ''(W)hen a child has problems, parents often feel guilty, and they can to some extent assuage that guilt by doing something. So alternative interventions are especially likely to be taken up in situations where the mainstream options are seen as ineffective and parents feel powerless to make a difference'' (Prof. Bishop. BDA 2008 ppt) And, once they've gone to all the trouble and expense of obtaining the label, parents and students may be very reluctant to discard it, even if new information comes along which might make them question its legitimacy and usefulness: ''There’s a psychological phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance which is the tendency to filter out information that conflicts with what one already believes, in an effort to ignore that information and reinforce one's beliefs. In the context of intervention, it is uncomfortable to conclude that one put in a lot of time and money into a treatment that has not worked. There is likely, therefore, to be a cognitive bias to paint as bright a picture as possible. This seems supported by studies that find a mismatch between people’s perceptions of efficacy and objective evidence.'' (Prof Bishop.BDA 2008. ppt)

''The belief that some children cannot learn to decode is toxic'' (David Didau. Twitter)

Kerr offers other important reasons to avoid the 'dyslexia' label: ''Firstly, much thinking about dyslexia is almost wilfully sloppy and sloppy science never did anyone any good, very particularly the subjects of it... Many diagnoses stand on small, highly controversial and rather subjectively assessed, evidence. And then, people given a diagnosis of a neurological deficit may find such a label at the least disconcerting, at worst devastating... And then, what about those who don't achieve the label? Are they simply (and publicly) to be designated as stupid? And then, we don't appear able to see over or around dyslexia; once the diagnosis has been invoked we seek no other explanations for presenting phenomena. Simpler alternative, much more everyday, scientifically duller, less sexy (and much less lucrative) explanations are very much less assiduously sought once a diagnosis of ‘dyslexia’ has been made'' (Kerr.p93)

The science of dyslexia isn’t as straightforward as politicians seem to think:
''However, Lord Watson tapped into a very considerable body of support from the dyslexia industry and the individuals it purports to help. Illiteracy is intensely shameful, and a diagnosis of dyslexia is a child’s get-out-of-jail-free card. They get attached to their diagnosis, rather like the Stockholm syndrome''

''It’s bonkers when parents have to fight to get their kids stigmatized to receive services that more often than not do nothing more than lock in the stigma for life." (Prof. Schutz)

Children do some or all of the following as a result of flawed, insufficient or absent instruction, NOT because they have a specific brain weakness, 'dyslexia':
- Use letter names instead of GPCs e.g. plA for 'play', pRT for 'party'
- Add or miss out sounds in words.
- Change unknown words to familiar words.
- Say the first sound/s and guess the rest
- Mix sounds around in words e.g. 'girl' as 'gril'.
- Use the pictures or context to help with guessing words.
- Continue to be confused by the shapes and sounds of letters e.g. b/d e/i
- Reverse words e.g. saw/was pit/tip.

You may be able to remediate your child's decoding and spelling problems yourself if your child is in the early years of primary education and their reading difficulties aren't too serious. To fix-it-yourself: first use the free tests below to obtain an insight into the extent of your child's decoding and spelling problems, then select a suitable programme and materials from those listed here. If the task seems overwhelming then an experienced synthetic/linguistic phonics trained tutor may be the answer, see- Choosing a remedial tutor

See 'Teenage Dyslexics' if your child is near or at the secondary stage.


This flowchart is based on The Simple View of Reading. It will help you identify whether a child is struggling with decoding, comprehension - or with both.

Free copies of the DfE's past phonics screening check (PSC) materials. Quick and easy to do. Independent researchers found the phonics check to be a ''valid measure of phonic skills and sensitive to identifying children at risk of reading difficulties'' N.B the check measures elementary alphabet code knowledge (at the end of Y1 much of the advanced common code still remains to be taught) along with segmenting and blending skills. Though the PSC is not called a dyslexia test, if a Y1 child legitimately achieves the expected standard in the check then it's reasonable to say that they aren't 'phonetically deaf' or 'dyslexic'.

Free. Phonic decodable books assessment sheets to download -includes nonsense words.

''Free, low-frequency word spelling test which you can download here and use to explore learners’ spelling skills and knowledge. It’s not a standardised test, so won’t tell you whether a learner’s spelling skills are behind, on a par with or ahead of peers. Its purpose is to focus your attention on the things that matter most for spelling''

Ruth Miskin's nonsense word test. This is a phonics decoding ability test.

IMPORTANT: Basic Alphabet Code Knowledge Test. Does your child know the Alphabet Code? Do YOU?

Debbie Hepplewhite provides several free, assessments including an Alphabet Code (say the sounds) and Nonsense Word tests.

Book: 'Why Children Can't Read: and what we can do about it' by Diane McGuinness. Pub. Penguin (out of print but copies available through Amazon) USA edition (in print) Why our children can't read and what we can do about it. Pub. Simon&Schuster. Both editions include a useful set of assessments: nonsense words, phoneme segementation/blending and a code knowledge test.

- Hodder Parallel Spelling Tests. Dennis Young.
Spelling tests used by Sounds-Write teachers and tutors.
''Designed to chart children's progress in spelling from age six to 13 years''
N.B. orders are restricted to schools/institutions only.

What are the problems with 'Reading Age' assessments?

An assessment to avoid:

Running Records are an uninformative waste of teacher time

''(T)he widely-used but slow and subjective Running Record..is based on a model of reading so far from reality that nobody has ever come forward to admit they made it up''

Miscue Analysis - Running Records: What does the research show us?

Running Records Must be Abolished. They ''assess a student’s ability to recognise words based on contextual guessing''

Miscue Analysis critique

A critique of Running Records of children’s oral reading.

''I have been an Educational Psychologist for 15 years working at the school/classroom level within a Local Authority and I still do not know what dyslexia is''

The Blame Game! Are School Problems the Kids' Fault?

Link to The Options/Choosing a tutor