Recommended links for student teachers
and NQTs X
The Simple View of Reading (SVR): Reading ability is based
on two major, essential, interacting but different components:
phonics decoding ability x language comprehension
(vocabulary and general knowledge) Note that both
components are essential but neither is sufficient on its own.
SVR: Phonics Decoding:
It is still unusual for nearly all of a primary school's
children to regularly finish year 6 able to decode and spell at a level
that allows them to deal confidently with the word-level
reading and spelling demands of the secondary curriculum. However, some schools are
managing to change this deplorable state of
is in Newham, east London, an area of high deprivation.
Synthetic phonics (Read Write Inc) is used to teach children to read at the school. The headteacher, Shahed Ahmed, says, “More than 90 per cent of our pupils speak English as an additional language and we have 20 per cent mobility. The school ''has 1,000 pupils and not one of them leaves unable to read'' (TES. Lightfoot. 12/08/11) Furthermore, ''No child has been identified as having dyslexia since we adopted the
[synthetic phonics] programme in 2004'' http://goo.gl/g4rJzQ
Curwen primary school
is also in Newham, east London. A teacher at the school says,
''Ten years ago 40% of our children left us not able to read
properly. Now all of them leave us reading well...There are
more EAL and economically deprived children in the school than
there were 10 years ago. So, how come reading results are
better?..The difference is purely down to the change in
teaching methodology. We teach reading solely by using
synthetic phonics [Read Write Inc]. It works''.
Another primary school which, through teaching the linguistic phonics
programme Sounds-Write ''with fidelity'', has superb reading and
spelling results, is St Thomas Aquinas in Milton Keynes.
St George's is a small primary school in Battersea, London.
Half of its pupils have English as an additional language and
over half are eligible for free school meals. The school uses
Sounds-Write to teach reading and spelling. All its children
have reached the required standard in the phonics decoding check
6 years in a row and all the children in Y1 and Y2
(2018) can spell at chronological age or better; good evidence that
high quality linguistic phonics teaching in the early years actively
prevents children from becoming ''phonetically deaf''
''I think it’s reprehensible that students can get
through 10,000 hours of primary school without learning to read,
write and spell'' (Dr.Lorraine
SVR: Language / Vocabulary / Reading Comprehension
The end of KS2 Reading test examines children's reading
comprehension (English vocabulary and general
knowledge), not fluent and accurate word reading. To increase the probability of performing well in the Reading test, pupils
require an extensive,
knowledge rich (English) vocabulary, drawn from a wide variety of
different subjects, especially the humanities and sciences
(Christine Counsell) Schools in areas of deprivation, especially those
with a high percentage of pupils who speak English as an additional
language, can find filling the knowledge and vocabulary gap an
enormous challenge. Schools that draw the majority of their
pupils from wealthier, English-as-first-language, more
middle-class areas find it much easier to achieve high scores in
the Reading test, even if their pupils have received flawed or
limited phonics instruction in the early years.
average socioeconomic status (SES) of the
student body of the school...strongly predicts the
achievement of the school's students'' (Dr.
Hollis Scarborough. underline in original)
''Vocabulary size is the outward and visible sign of
an inward acquisition of knowledge''
X In the early grades, U.S. schools value reading-comprehension
skills over knowledge. The results are devastating, especially
for poor kids.
X Reading comprehension: a new
“A child’s inference cannot exceed their ‘mental models’,
background knowledge or vocabulary. These are the things that
poor comprehenders lack and no amount of comprehension-strategy
practice can fill this gap.”
tests are really “knowledge
tests in disguise.” (Prof. Willingham)
''Those who do particularly well without a knowledge rich
curriculum succeed because of the knowledge and vocabulary they
have acquired outside school''
''(O)nly curriculum-based [reading]
tests can be fair and educationally productive'' (Hirsch
''E D Hirsch describes how several recent studies have conclusively shown
that background knowledge is the number one factor in reading
trumping academic ability and IQ in pupils, and complexity in texts''
Willingham: Decoding, knowledge and reading comprehension.
Jon Hutchinson explains how knowledge organisers and work
booklets can be used to help provide a fail-safe, knowledge rich
curriculum, giving equality of curriculum content for all
''Now, we have our knowledge organiser. A single sheet of A4
paper with all of the essential facts that together represent
the schema of a topic...a useful primer and aide memoire for
''When writing the booklets, we assumed that if children didn’t
learn it in lessons, they wouldn’t learn it. This is because for
some of our kids, that will be true''
Why it is Essential to Teach Phonics Decoding (Synthetic
Phonics) in the Early Years:
For the majority of children in primary school it can
seem not to
matter if they learn to use multi-cue word-guessing for decoding. Over time, in primary, despite
flawed or limited phonics teaching, most children
manage to memorise many of the high frequency words by sight
and invent strategies to work out longer, trickier words in
their leveled reading scheme books. Sadly, a significant percentage of
these, to all appearances, successful readers, will have had a
more difficult time learning to read than is necessary, will
remain poor spellers and will be unable to read accurately the more
unusual words found in secondary level
literature and advanced educational texts (school English
books contain around 88,500 different words (D.McGuinness
ERI p216) The insidious effects of flawed
decoding methods create many young people who dislike
reading and writing and are the cause of vast numbers of
teenagers who stall in their studies at the secondary
''Multi-syllable problems are decoding problems! The
point that I have to make all the time is that if students can't
read multi syllable words well, we aren't finished with decoding
instruction'' (Sara Peden.
Why can’t children read… Dickens?
The ability to read and write well is key to a happy
and successful passage through life in our society. Professor
MacDonald wrote, ''My own research on the psychology of adult
illiteracy has amply demonstrated that the ability to read
is probably the most significant factor (out of many) in determining
a person's sense of autonomy and self-worth.''(MacDonald
p5) Intellectual independence also relies on good reading
skills. ''Close reading of tough-minded writing is still
the best, cheapest and quickest method known for learning
to think for yourself.''(Gatto
''The Centre for Social Justice found there are significant literacy and numeracy problems in 50-75% of children who are permanently excluded from school. Many children were found to “display challenging behaviour to hide the fact they cannot read.” (DfE.Evidence paper p1)
Can Reading Problems Affect Mental Health?
''Reading failure correlates with aggressive, anti-social
behaviour more strongly than any social or economic indicator'' (Turner/ Burkard p13)
The Reading Wars:
You do not have to delve very far into the world of
educational academia to discover the so-called 'Reading Wars'.
This is a long running and acrimonious debate between those
who say that synthetic phonics is the most efficient and
effective way to teach decoding and spelling and those who
insist that reading through multi-clues (guessing) and
memorised sight words, a so-called 'balanced approach', works
just fine. The controversy extends into the progressive
education community. Many of its members believe that nearly all
children, given an environment full of books with helpful,
literate adults on hand, can teach themselves how to read,
just as they learnt to walk and talk.
''The essential constructivist principle is that teachers should teach nothing directly, but rather function as coaches while their students basically teach themselves''. Professor Stephen Krashen, ''a self-described 'staunch defender'' of whole-language, believes that, "(A)ny child exposed to comprehensible print will learn to read, barring severe neurological or emotional problems...Kids learn to read by reading'' (Charlotte Allen)
Another of the major exponents of whole language, Margaret Meek, has famously said that children learn to read, "when there is something they want to read and an adult who takes time and trouble to help them". Whole language enthusiasts suggest that structured teaching to develop reading skills is not only unnecessary, it may be positively harmful'' (Palmer. TES. 10/11/95)
Australian children's book author Mem Fox also believes that ''all
children will learn to read if they are exposed to enough
books, words, stories..''
Fact and fiction with Mem Fox
The home literacy environment: ''Storybook exposure was not a
significant predictor of children’s outcomes. In contrast,
direct literacy instruction remained a predictor of reading /
X ''Surely if children can learn something as complex as speech
without much effort, why do we need to go to the trouble of
painstakingly teaching them phoneme/grapheme relationships?''
For an idea of the difficulty involved in learning to read
using an opaque alphabet code, look at this re-coded, first line
of a well-known nursery rhyme and work out what it says: ytoxto
hruxsz ub ldyyuos xtmo (answer at the base of this page)
''This example provides the adult reader with some idea of the
child's first experience with print. If you stared at this
passage for years, you wouldn't have the slightest idea how
to decode it. Why then should we expect a child to decipher
the English alphabet code, one of the most complex ever designed,
without direct instruction?'' (D.McGuinness
Advice, commonly given, that the choice of method to teach
reading should depend on your child's particular learning or thinking
style, is incorrect.
Although this advice sounds, on the face of it, sensible and
reasonable, it does pupils
no favours. ''Excluding students identified as “visual/kinesthetic” learners from effective phonics instruction is a bad instructional practice—bad because it is not only not research based, it is actually contradicted by research''
(Stanovich p30 http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/Stanovich_Color.pdf)
For true multi-sensory learning,
lessons should provide multiple tasks that reinforce all possible sensory and motor systems
in tandem: listening (phoneme analysis), looking
(discriminate letter shapes/learn spelling patterns, visual tracking), writing (kinesthetic movement), and speaking
(speech-motor system, auditory feedback) to anchor the
spelling code in memory as quickly as possible.
Diane McGuinness explains multi-sensory learning:
''The cognitive systems of the brain rely on cross-modal
processing to form what are known as "routines" or "subroutines"
-- which are carried out in the dendrites in "neural circuits."
In a complex act, various subroutines/circuits are linked up in
the brain (via neural pathways), because each one of them occurs
in a different region. Thus, if you teach phonemes linked to
letters, and reinforce this via writing, you have connected up
the auditory cortex language areas of the medial left
hemisphere, (phonemic analysis and synthesis already in place
because of language), with something NEW - i.e. visual symbols
(not ordinarily part of language processing) which engage the
posterior occipital regions of the brain responsible for visual
pattern analysis, and then link both to a kinesthetic response
by writing what you hear and see, which engages the fine motor
processing systems governed by the motor cortex (usually left
hemisphere superior motor gyrus). When you link all three as you
process text (or generate text via writing), these three systems
of the brain "cooperate" and reinforce one another, and this
doubles the speed of learning. You have three different parts of
the brain (plus their subsidiary regions) acting in tandem''
Children rely heavily on good auditory skills to learn to
decode and spell accurately (Macmillan
p126-132), writing being a coded transcription of the sounds
in our speech. Children who suffer from hearing loss in early childhood are at increased risk
of difficulties with learning to read, as are those who have
acquired a dominant visual reading habit as a result of faulty
initial teaching. Both sets of children need much more
practice in the auditory aspects of reading, working at the
phoneme level. This does NOT mean that time should be spent on
discrete listening (phonological) exercises. Research shows
that what develops children's decoding skills
best is time spent working with the phonemes AND letters (spellings) together.
''Teaching children to manipulate phonemes using letters
produced greater effects than teaching without letters''
(USA.2000 National Reading Panel. See Chapter 2: 6, 21, 33,
basic principle is that reading depends on speech, at every
Phonics Instruction Around Europe:
On the best age to start teaching children to decode and
spell English, in school, using synthetic
phonics, the Rose Report gives the
following advice: ''(F)or most children,
it is highly worthwhile and appropriate to begin a systematic
programme of phonic work by the age of five, if not before
for some children'' (Rose Report 2006.
Sir Jim Rose noted that ''(A)n appropriate introduction to phonic work
by the age of five enables our children to cover ground that
many of their counterparts in other countries whose language
is much less complex phonetically do not have to cover''(Rose
Report. 2006 para99)
''When living in a print-saturated environment, many children attempt to read at a very early age. Letting them drift along using their invented strategies, without intervention, may harm them for life''
(D.McGuinness WCCR p153)
As evidence of the benefits of waiting until children are
aged seven to start direct teaching of reading, the Early Years
lobbyists can be relied on to flag up Finland where all children
become accurate word decoders within weeks of starting formal
school - aged seven. What they don't tell you is that Finland
has a very transparent alphabet code and many Finnish parents
teach their children to read pre-school as it's so easy to do.
''One-third of Finnish children can already read
simple text when they begin school''
''Currently, the most vehement opponents of synthetic
phonics are the Early Years lobbyists. Their belief system has
it that teaching five-year olds to read is detrimental to
their physical and mental well-being. They quote Finland where
children do not begin ‘formal teaching’ until much later and
learn to read easily to bolster their case...But there is
nothing ‘formal’ about synthetic phonics teaching. It is
multi-sensory and fun and can be achieved in 30 minutes a day,
leaving several hours to be filled by child-initiated play,
sand, water, painting, outdoor play, you name it.'' (Shadwell. issue 88. 2006)
Debunking the Finnish fantasy, one piece
at a time...
''(O)ur alphabetic system is not transparent as it is in
Finnish, where there is only one way to spell each sound in
the main. Our code needs to be introduced carefully from the
simple to the more complex by teachers who understand it themselves.
Left until six, our children will already have developed look
and stare strategies, along with guessing and be well on the
way to making a dog’s dinner of understanding the code.'' (Shadwell. issue 88. 2006)
The Early Years lobbyists consistently fail to mention the
evidence from Denmark, possibly because it doesn't suit their
agenda. ''Danish shares with English the features of a deep
orthography and a complex syllable structure. In Denmark
children do not enter primary school until they are 7 years old.
Despite this 2-year age advantage, they experience difficulties
in acquiring the logographic [sic] and alphabetic foundation
processes which are comparable to those observed in English,
although less extreme'' (Seymour/Aro/Erskine)
English, Danish, Portuguese and French are, in that order,
the European languages with the most 'opaque' alphabet codes.
English and Danish also have a complex syllable structure.
Greek, Finnish, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish and Dutch are
much easier to learn as they have a majority one
sound / one spelling correspondence.
X Map of Europe showing % of
errors in word reading at the end of first year of formal
school, by country. 2003
''Orthographic depth correlates with incidence of dyslexia...Syllabic
complexity correlates with word decoding''
factors hugely influence the speed and ease of learning to decode and
encode a written language accurately: the transparency of the language's spelling code (orthographic depth)
and the method used to teach reading and spelling.
Having a transparent alphabet code is not the only reason
why children in most European countries learn to decode so successfully (accurately) and
rapidly; many European countries teach
reading using synthetic phonics; letter names
and sight words are not
taught. The combination of a transparent alphabet
code and the synthetic phonics teaching method means that, ''poor
readers (children who can't decode) are rare to nonexistent
in many European countries'' (D.McGuinness
''In countries with a straightforward alphabet
writing system, where each sound is represented by only one
symbol, learning to 'crack the code' takes about twelve weeks
for all children'' (D.McGuinness
Ofsted's 'Bold Beginnings':
statutory Early Learning Goals guidance says that by the end of
the early years foundation stage (Reception year) children should be able to, ''use phonic knowledge
to decode regular words and read them aloud accurately'' and,
''use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which
match their spoken sounds''. Further guidance from the DfE
notes that ''Most phonics programmes encourage the teaching of at least one grapheme for all 40-plus phonemes
[a simple/basic code] by the end of Reception, alongside the skill of blending sounds together to read words'' (DfE)
N.B. not all schools begin teaching phonics from the beginning
of Reception and not all children have a full year in Reception
(parents have the right to defer until the term after their
Prof.Daniel Muijs: Bold beginnings and the importance of
Literacy in the early years: Ofsted’s Bold Beginnings report on
Reception teaching was controversial, but it may ultimately
serve to open some eyes and minds, writes Debbie Hepplewhite
2018. Effectiveness of Preschool-Wide Teacher-Implemented
Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge Instruction on
Code-Based School-Entry Reading Readiness
''Overall, preschool-wide, teacher-implemented,
phoneme-focused PA and LSK instruction can support code-based
reading readiness skills for children with SLD and TD''
Young children only stand to benefit from explicit instruction
''If we truly want all children to thrive in reading, we need to
introduce phonics in early years''
The most important socialising force for a child is their
peer-group. Their influence is especially strong during middle-childhood
(6-12 yrs) (Harris p226).
This factor needs to be considered in the reading equation. A
child, whose everyday companions, in school or out, consist of
other children who think that reading is boring or unpleasant, will
copy those attitudes, ignoring those held by parents or other
significant adults. This is another important reason for most children to begin a systematic
synthetic phonics programme by the age of five
(Rose Report 2006. para89), before any anti-book,
peer-group influence takes hold.
Parents may be concerned that their children will be damaged if
they start to teach them to read pre-school using synthetic phonics,
having heard that it is dangerous to impose anything
'developmentally inappropriate' on young children. There is no
scientific basis to this idea.
Many parents have successfully taught children much younger
than five to read using a suitable synthetic / linguistic phonics programme.
If you are uncertain about how well the schools in your area
teach early reading and spelling, then this isn't 'hot housing' but a wise precaution. 'Bright' children will also benefit from an early start. Chartered psychologist Professor Joan Freeman
writes, ''In my practice I see several children a week who can read, write and make excellent conversation, and who are well under school age, some as young as 2. No parent or teacher can make a child do this if they are not capable. The children are otherwise normal and happy and keen to learn. The numbers of them that I can see could doubtless be multiplied by many hundreds around the country. The proposed prohibitions by the anti-early-literacy group to stop enthusiastic children from getting the basics of literacy at nursery would be a cruel blow to their lively searching minds'' (Guardian.letters. 25/07/08)
Recommended resources for teaching pre-schoolers to read.
''Once a child can read independently, the
growth of many other skills is promoted'' (Research
cited- Macmillan p7) ''Reading...opens some important
doors...it gives the young learner a degree of autonomy and
independence...also gives a child access to the whole culture
of literacy. Reading makes it possible... to have access to
vast quantities of stored knowledge'' (Howe
'97 p154) ''The increased reading experiences of children
who crack the spelling-to-sound code early..have important
positive feedback effects. Such feedback effects appear to
be potent sources of individual differences in academic achievement'' (Stanovich. Matthew Effects p364)
Delaying the start of direct instruction
can be detrimental, especially for boys, ''(D)elaying the start of school for a year has no benefits and is likely to lead to a substantial drop in IQ...the largest reading ability
sex differences in the world occur in countries such as Denmark,
Finland and Sweden where children don't start school until
age 7'' (RRF 51 Macmillan)
''(W)hy do we insist on waiting for children to be
‘ready’, only to then label them SEN when they don’t
miraculously discover or do what everyone’s waiting for?'' (Quirky
Teacher. Twitter 26/07/18)
''(A)t age eighteen, children who started school a year later had I.Q. scores that were significantly lower than their younger counterparts. Their earnings also suffered: through age thirty, men who started school later earned less. A separate study, of the entire Swedish population born between 1935 and 1984, came to a similar conclusion''
What reading does for the mind: Cunningham&Stanovich
Teaching ‘advanced academic content,’ in early years
‘'associated not only with improved math and English/language
arts achievement but also with improved social-emotional
Death of a dogma? ''The dubious concept of developmental
appropriateness has had its day''
Prof. Willingham examines Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading
experience and ability 10 years later.
''(R)apid acquisition of
reading ability might well help develop the lifetime habit of
Research: Impact of a play-based curriculum in the first two years of primary school: literacy and numeracy outcomes over seven years. ''It appears that no extra positive effect can be found for the play-based approach on reading and maths outcomes, and that perhaps a slight negative effect is evident''.
Early Years 'expert' Sue Palmer, author of Toxic Childhood, is one of those who tars the teaching of early reading using synthetic phonics with the 'formal
and risky' brush, once describing advocates as, ''(A) rabble of back to basics diehards'' (Palmer. TES 10/11/95). More recently she opined that it was
''cruel and mad'' to expect the majority of five year olds to be able to write simple sentences (NurseryWorld 11/1/12). But, as Sir Jim Rose said, ''The term ‘formal’ in the pejorative sense in
which phonic work is sometimes perceived in early education
is by no means a fair reflection of the active, multi-sensory
practice seen and advocated by the review for starting young
children on the road to reading'' (Rose
Review.2006 Summary p3)
''I can’t help thinking
that Sue Palmer, the literacy consultant and author of Toxic
Childhood, doth protest too much, too often. This time she’s
complaining about the government’s new EYFS writing target''
Why Upstart is a non-starter. ''Upstart
Scotland is actively campaigning to introduce a Nordic-style
kindergarten system between the ages of three and seven, with
learning being undertaken through ‘creative play’ rather than
The following ''non-experimental'' study is commonly quoted by those
who suggest that it's unnecessary, even detrimental, for children
to begin to be taught phonics around the age of five, as we do in
England, and we should wait until the age of seven (when
children's adult teeth usually appear). The main author, Dr.Suggate, is a strong supporter
of Rudolf Steiner's theories about education.
In the following RRF messageboard thread, educational
psychologist John Noble and Simon Webb, an author and blogger, comment on the
''Steiner was very clear about why delayed reading was a good
idea – not because older children can learn to read better, but
because memorising and reading interfered with the incarnation
of the etheric body. It could damage a spiritual protective
sheath around the child leading to illness and
spiritual degeneration. ‘Developmental needs’ in the Steiner
world are to do with the incarnation of spiritual entities. Only
after adult teeth have appeared is a child spiritually ready to
learn to read''
Written Word Processing and the Brain:
Evidence suggests that many of those who have been taught
to read through whole word memorisation along with guessing
strategies for decoding, are handicapped by their lack of phonemic awareness and their limited
knowledge of the advanced alphabet code. As a result they have
difficulties accurately decoding unfamiliar words (especially
multi-syllable ones) and with spelling.
Individual letter/sound correspondence processing is necessary because many words
differ from another by only one or two letters - sad/said, diary/dairy,
four/floor/flour, quit/quite/quiet... If, during reading, many words are
guessed at and misread, it can completely change the sense
of the text making it a meaningless, confidence-sapping exercise.
People interpret the meaning of the term 'sight word' in
different ways. The most common understanding is that sight
words are high frequency words (HFWs) which have to be
visually memorised as whole shapes (customarily using
'look-say' flash cards). This is advocated by infant teachers
who use mixed decoding methods. The HFWs, they believe, are mostly
''non-phonetic'' or ''too irregular'' to be learned through
phonics. Additionally, they think that if their pupils get off
to a rapid start with the school's leveled scheme books, aided
those memorised sight words and multi-cueing (guessing)
strategies, this will be 'confidence-boosting'. Yet, as researchers Ashby and Rayner point out,
''(O)ne could argue that these children are only pretending to read, as the inherent magic of reading rests on the reader's independence'' (Ashby/Rayner.p60)
Synthetic / linguistic phonics practitioners say that a
'sight word' is any word (real or nonsense) that a reader has successfully decoded
phonologically many times before.
As a consequence, whenever the reader encounters it in text,
they decode it so rapidly below conscious awareness that it seems
as though it is being read instantly, without any phonological decoding taking place.
Prof. McGuinness points out,
''One should never think that just because "it seems like" we
read instantly, this is, in fact, what we do. Our brain
processes millions of bits of information all the time that we
are not consciously aware of, because the processing speed far
outstrips our ability to be conscious of it. An efficient reader
has "automatized" or "speeded up" the decoding process to the
point where it runs off outside conscious awareness''
Highly skilled readers may feel that they are
bypassing phonological decoding, going directly to each real
word's meaning but, in addition to lacking a credible research
base, the theory was challenged convincingly by Glushko back in
1979. He argued that the brain automatically processes ALL the
information available about the input signal from each word in
parallel, processing multiple modalities simultaneously (much of
which does not reach consciousness) and processing is not
carried out along two separate routes or pathways
(D. McGuinness ERI p289)
Modern eye-movement studies confirm that skilled readers,
even when reading silently, parallel process each word, and this
processing includes the word's phonological information.
Researchers Ashby and Rayner explain: ''The
word-superiority effect demonstrates that skilled readers
process all of the letters when identifying a word'' and
''represent complex aspects of a word's phonological form,
including syllable and stress information''
(italics added. Ashby/Rayner p57/p58),
but this is done at a subconscious level. Only when the skilled
reader comes to a previously unencountered word do the skills of
phonological decoding come back into consciousness.
X Handbook of early literacy research Vol.2 -see Ch.4 by Ashby and Rayner on eye movement research.
Diane McGuinness discusses Dual Route at length in 'Early
Reading Instruction' p287-> especially Glushko's insights.
Silent reading isn't so silent, at least, not to your brain
studies show that the primary motor cortex is active during
reading, presumably because it is involved with mouth movements
used in reading aloud. The process of mentally sounding out
words is an integral part of silent reading, even for the highly
''The adult brain does not
use global word shape: it still processes the letters, but all
at once (in parallel) and this results in
skilled readers having
''an illusion of whole-word reading''
how the brain learns to read
Literature review on eye movement & word identification: ''(R)eaders
naturally access the sounds of words while reading silently''
''(R)ecent brain studies show that the primary motor cortex
is active during reading, presumably because it is involved
with mouth movements used in reading aloud. The process of
mentally sounding out words is an integral part of silent
reading, even for the highly skilled'' see p90 www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/reading.pdf
''For skilled readers, phonological coding may be consciously
experienced as inner speech, or the voice they hear in
their head during reading'' (Ashby/Rayner p54)
''We have known for about a century that inner speech is accompanied by tiny muscular movements in the larynx, detectable by a technique known as electromyography. In the 1990s, neuroscientists used functional neuroimaging to demonstrate that areas such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area), which are active when we speak out loud, are also active during inner speech. Furthermore, disrupting the activity of this region using brain stimulation techniques can interrupt both “outer” and inner speech'' (http://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2014/aug/21/science-little-voice-head-hearing-voices-inner-speech)
Read the following (real) book title to examine your own
phonological decoding skills. As an expert reader who
implicitly understands how the Alphabet Code works (whether
through direct phonics instruction or deduced over time) you'll find yourself tracking
through the unusual words slowly left to right, segmenting one
GPC at a time, mentally sounding out as you go,
then blending the sounds as you proceed. 'Nonscience and the Pseudotransmogrificationalific Egocentrified Reorientational Proclivities Inherently Intracorporated In Expertistical Cerebrointellectualised Redeploymentation with Special Reference to Quasi-Notional Fashionistic Normativity, The Indoctrinationalistic Methodological Modalities and Scalar Socio-Economic Promulgationary Improvementalisationalism Predelineated Positotaxically Toward Individualistified Mass-Acceptance Gratificationalistic Securipermanentalisationary Professionism, or 'How To Rule The World'. Brian J. Ford (Wikipedia. Nonscience)
Do fluent, adult readers read whole words as 'sight words'?
Reasons why segmenting is the mother of all skills in learning
to read and spell
''As a literate adult, you may not realise that when you are
reading, you are segmenting words into their constituent sounds
and then blending them to form words''
X Share: On the Anglocentricities of Current Reading Research
and Practice. Includes extensive discussion of
the late stage sight word theory.
Decoding and Intelligence:
There is a, ''widespread and pervasive misunderstanding that poor decoders are, in some way, intellectually inferior'' but, ''we can make no judgements about an individual's intellect based upon their decoding skills'' (Elliott. LDA Bulletin p13) Alexander Faludy, described as ''so severely dyslexic that he can barely write'', won a place at Cambridge University at the age of 14. (Times 17/01/98) Another high IQ 'dyslexic' (he has the spelling ability of an 8 year old), Ben Way, was a multi-millionaire businessman by the age of 20 (Telegraph 10/01/00)
Children with hyperlexia are self-taught, fluent word readers
from an extremely early age, but when hyperlexia is
accompanied by an intellectual disability (it is commonly
linked to autism) reading comprehension will
A parent on Mumsnet reported that her son with hyperlexia could read the Financial Times at age three. She also said that he was badly handicapped by a lack of phonics knowledge as he progressed through school and this resulted in him being unable to spell: ''What happened with my son was that because he was an exceptional reader he was never taught phonics and in Y6 he was still not writing anything!
His teachers and numerous Ed Psychs were totally fooled by his
apparent fluent reading (if only the PSC had been around) and
dismissed his difficulties because of this''
Children with serious intellectual disabilities can be taught
the mechanics of reading. Mona McNee, founder of
the UK Reading Reform Foundation, taught her own son to read
using synthetic phonics, despite the fact that he has Down's
syndrome (McNee p8). The researchers
Cossu, Rossini and Marshall found that Italian children with Down's syndrome
could decode quite competently, having been taught
the transparent sound-symbol correspondences of the Italian
alphabet code, but they lacked comprehension of what they
Canadian SEN teacher Susan S. notes
that, ''You find the phenomenon of children who decode very
well but understand almost nothing in only two populations:
children with intellectual disabilities and children with very limited English'' (Kitchentablemath blog 30/12/08)
Can children with intellectual disabilities learn to read?
Does Learning to Read Improve Intelligence?
A Longitudinal Multivariate Analysis in Identical Twins From Age 7 to 16
Word Calling / Barking at Print
/ ''Ron Burgundy Syndrome'' (Old Andrew)
There is a widely circulated myth that too much emphasis on
decoding through phonics causes children to 'bark at print'
aka ''Ron Burgundy Syndrome'' but, as Prof. Stanovich points out, ''There is no research evidence indicating that
decoding a known word into a phonological form often takes
place without meaning extraction. To the contrary, a substantial
body of evidence indicates that even for young children, word
recognition automatically leads to meaning activation..when
the meaning of the word is adequately established in memory''(RRF 50 Stanovich p8)
Ron Burgundy Syndrome
Specific Reading Comprehension Disability: Major Problem, Myth, or Misnomer?
''Although poor reading comprehension certainly qualifies as a major problem rather than a myth, the term specific reading comprehension disability is a misnomer: Individuals with problems in reading comprehension that are not attributable to poor word recognition have comprehension problems that are general to language comprehension rather than specific to reading''
''Experienced practitioners and teachers point out that,
in the course of phonics teaching, as children 'start to get
the hang of it', they begin to self-teach and 'need to read
a lot to consolidate their skills', that is, to develop effortless
reading and focus more and more on comprehending the text.
At this point, children may appear, some would say, to be
'barking at print' without fully understanding what they are
reading. Although this is often levelled as a criticism of
phonic work, such behaviour is usually transitional as children
hone their phonic skills. Given that even skilled adult readers
may find themselves 'barking at print' when they are faced
at times with unfamiliar text, it is hardly surprising that
children may do so in the early stages of reading''
(Rose Report para 49)
Who speaks for reading, writing and literature?
Parents, Poverty and Reading:
Research, studying factors that predict children's reading
ability, showed that in Britain the strongest predictor at
age seven was the mother's level of education rather than
the child's IQ (D.McGuinness WCCR p29).
''When teachers don't teach, the education children receive from their parents becomes of paramount importance, and the children of ill-educated parents are at an overwhelming disadvantage'' (Burkard.2007.p30)
Education isn't natural - that's why it's hard. ''Schools exist
to teach the hard stuff that children are unlikely to just pick
up from their environments''
''Most schools rely on parents to teach children to read..''
''I still can’t help but be concerned about the fact
that only 44% of disadvantaged, white working class males
achieve an acceptable outcome by the end of reception year''
(Quirky Teacher. Twitter 06/03/18)
In education, is poverty destiny?
''At an academic level, we should again focus on the agency of
the school. An approach to early reading that places heavy
emphasis on children taking lists of sight words home to learn
is inequitable. So is an approach that hinges on practising
reading at home. Instead, children need to be explicitly and
systematically taught to read while they are in school''
''Avoid parent-blame. It is not the job of parents to
teach children how to read.''
(Prof. Pamela Snow)
Why do wealthy kids usually do better in school than poor kids?
Why poor kids are more likely to be poor readers (and what we
can do about it)
Answer: London Bridge is falling down